Session 13






Language notes

Prepositions are words linking parts of a sentence to indicate the relationship to one another in terms of location, time or involvement, for example: the box was in the cupboard, he met his friends after the football match, she spoke to the manager.

In Welsh, many common verbs are often followed by particular prepositions.  In this section we give examples for some verbs beginning with letters A - Ff.  
In the next session 14, we will give examples for verbs beginning with the remaining letters of the alphabet.

It is important to note that there may not be a direct word-for-word translation between English and Welsh.  
For example: the English word 'of ' is often translated into Welsh as the word 'o', but a correct translation may require some other preposition. 

adrodd am/wrth; 
        Gwnaethon ni adrodd am y digwyddiad wrth yr heddlu.
        We reported the incident to the police.
anghofio am;
         Roeddwn i wedi anghofio am y cyfarfod.
         I had forgotten about the meeting. 
amddiffyn rhag
         Gwnaethon ni amddiffyn ein tŷ rhag y storm.
         We protected our house from the storm.
anfon at/i;
          Anfonodd y cwmni holiadur at y staff.
          The company sent a questionnaire to the staff.   (to a person)
           Anfonais gais i'r coleg.
          I sent an application to the college.      (to an organisation)
apelio at/ar;
           Apeliodd at Mr Jones ar ran ei mab.
           She appealed to Mr Jones on behalf of her son.
atal rhag;
           Rhaid i ni atal ceir rhag goryrru trwy'r pentref.   
           We must stop cars speeding through the village.
benthyca oddi ar/gan/o;
           Benthycodd yr arian oddi ar ei rieni.
           Benthycodd yr arian gan ei rieni.
           He borrowed the money from his parents.   (from a person)
           Gwnaethon ni fenthyg y llyfrau o'r llyfrgell.    
           We borrowed the books from the library.   (from an organisation)
cadw rhag/at;
            Cadwch y llaeth rhag cynhesu gormod.
            Keep the milk from getting too warm.
            Cadwch at y palmant trwy'r pentref.
            Keep to pavement through the village.
cael gan/o;
            Cefais lythyr gan fy ffrind o'r Eidal.
            I had a letter from my friend from Italy.
caniatįu i;
           Maen nhw'n caniatu i bobl ymweld ā'r gerddi.
           They allow people to visit the gardens
clywed am/gan 
           Clywais am y ddamwain gan yrrwr y bws.
           I heard about the accident from the bus driver.
cofio am/at 
           Cofiais am brynu'r tocynnau.
           I remembered about buying the tickets.
           Cofiwch fi at un sy'n byw yno.
           Remember me to one who lives there.
credu mewn/am
           Mae'n credu mewn trin pobl yn deg.
           He believes in treating people fairly.
           Ydych chi'n credu'r stori am y bwgan?
           Do you believe the story about the ghost?  






cyfarfod ā;
           Gwnes i cyfarfod ā hen ffrind yn y dref.
           I met an old friend in town.
cyffwrdd ā;
            Peidiwch ā chyffwrdd ā'r peiriant. 
            Don't touch the machine.     
cyhuddo o;
            Maen cael ei gyhuddo o ddwyn y beic.
            He is accused of stealing the bicycle.
cynnig i/am;
        Gwnaeth gynnig i'r gwerthwr tai am y tŷ.
        He made an offer to the estate agent for the house.
cytuno ā/efo;
        Rydyn ni'n cytuno ā phenderfyniad y cyngor. 
        We agree with the decision of the council.
cytuno ynglŷn ā 
        Rwy'n cytuno ā chi ynglŷn ā pharcio yn y dref.
        I agree with you regarding parking in the town.
cuddio rhag;
        Fe wnaethon ni guddio rhag y dorf ddig.
        We hid from the angry crowd.
chwilio am/i 
        Roedden nhw'n chwilio am y trysor.
        They were searching for the treasure.
         Roedden nhw'n chwilio i achos y damwain.
         They were looking into the cause of the accident.
dadlau ā/ynghylch
         Roedd yn dadlau ā chymydog ynghylch y gwrych.
         He was arguing with a neighbour about the hedge.
dangos i/sut 
         A ddangoswch i Mrs Jones sut i ddefnyddio'r cyfrifiadur?
         Will you show Mrs Jones how to use the computer?
dianc rhag/i 
         Gwnes i ddianc rhag y tywydd drwg i'r bwthyn.
         I escaped from the bad weather to the cottage.
diogelu rhag
         Mae'n bwysig diogelu rhag llifogydd.
         It is important to protect against flooding.
disgwyl am/i/wrth 
         Roeddwn i'n disgwyl am fy ffrind am hanner awr.
         I was waiting for my friend for half an hour.
         Roeddwn i'n disgwyl wrth y drws, yn disgwyl i'r cloch ganu. 
         I was waiting at the door, waiting for the bell to ring.
dweud wrth/am 
          Dywedodd wrth y staff am y prosiect.
          He told the staff about the project.
dychwelyd at/i 
          Dychwelodd at y meddyg.
          He returned to the doctor.
          Dychwelodd i'r orsaf reilffordd.
          He returned to the railway station. 
dylanwadu ar
          Dylanwadodd yr athro ar y myfyriwr i gystadlu yn yr eisteddfod.
          The teacher influenced the student to compete in the eisteddfod.
dysgu i/am
          Rydw i'n mynd i ddysgu i'r dosbarth am hanes.
          I am going to teach the class about history. 
edrych am;
          Roedd yn edrych am esgus i aros gartref.
          He was looking for an excuse to stay at home.
ffarwelio ā;
           Aeth i'r maes awyr i ffarwelio ā ffrind.
           He went to the airport to bid farewell to a friend.



Treigladau

In the previous session we examined how a treiglad meddal is applied immediately after the subject of a short form verb.  This is at the start of the complement of the sentence.  For example:
    Cariodd y gofalwr fwrdd ir ystafell yn y prynhawn ar gyfer y cyfarfod.
    The caretaker carried a table to the room in the afternoon for the meeting.

The verb specifies an action, and the subject is the person or thing which carries out the action.  The verb is 'cariodd', and the subject is 'gofalwr'.

The complement usually begins with the object, which is the person or thing on which the action is carried out.  The object is  'bwrdd'.

Other clauses may then be added to give information about when, where or why the action was carried out.  In this case:
                         yn y prynhawn         ... when
                         ir ystafell                 ... where
                         ar gyfer y cyfarfod   ... why

It is possible, however, to change the sentence order and put one or more of these clauses before the object.  For example, we might write:
      The caretaker, in the afternoon, carried a table to the room for the meeting.

In Welsh, the treiglad is still applied to the object of the sentence on which the action is carried out:
     Cariodd y gofalwr, yn y prynhawn, fwrdd ir ystafell ar gyfer y cyfarfod.





The rule is extended further by applying a treiglad meddal in all cases where the normal order of the sentence is changed by inserting a time, place or reason clause. 

A sentence with normal word order is:
            Bydd cyngerdd yn y neuadd ar ddydd Llun
            There will be (verb) a concert (subject) in the hall on Monday

but a treiglad is applied if the sentence order is changed by an inserted clause:
            Bydd, ar ddydd Llun, gyngerdd yn y neuadd               cyngerdd
            There will, on Monday, be a concert in the hall            

Other examples are: 
            Roedd e eisiau gofyn cwestiwn yn ystod y cyfarfod.
            He wanted to ask a question during the meeting.
but
            Roedd e eisiau, yn ystod y cyfarfod, ofyn cwestiwn       gofyn
            He wanted, during the meeting, to ask a question 

            Mae Aled wedi derbyn gwobr am gelf yn yr ysgol. 
            Aled has received a prize for art at school.
but
            Mae Aled wedi derbyn, yn yr ysgol, wobr am gelf          gwobr
            Aled has received, at school, a prize for art



Idioms

The word 'dan' in Welsh is normally translated as 'under':
           Mae eich llyfr o dan y papur newydd.
           Your book is under the newspaper.
           Roedd yr ogof o dan y clogwyn.
           The cave was under the cliff.

'dan' appears in a number of common phrases and idioms:

dan bwysau  - under pressure
         Mae'r staff dan bwysau i gyflawni'r gwaith mewn pryd.
         The staff are under pressure to complete the work on time.

dan ddaear - underground
        Gall twristiaid fynd dan ddaear yn yr hen chwarel lechi.
        Tourists can go underground in the old slate quarry.  

dan sylw - in question
        Dyma'r adroddiad dan sylw sy'n cynnwys camgymeriad.
        This is the report in question which contains a mistake.




dan draed - in the way
         Cwynodd Mrs Jones fod ei gŵr dan draed yn y gegin.
          Mrs Jones complained that her husband was in the way in the kitchen.

dan ei sang - full to capacity
          Roedd maes yr eisteddfod dan ei sang drwy'r dydd.
          The Eisteddfod field was packed all day.

dan glo - locked away
          Cadwch moddion dan glo pan fydd plant yn y tŷ.
          Keep medicines locked away when there are children in the house. 

dan yr amgylchiadau - under the circumstances
         Roedd y daith yn iawn o dan yr amgylchiadau, er gwaethaf y glaw.
         The trip was alright under the circumstances, despite the rain.

dan ystyriaeth - under consideration
         Mae'r cynllun ar gyfer y tai newydd dan ystyriaeth gan y cyngor.
         The plan for the new houses is under consideration by the council.




Translate the sentence:

The Tryweryn Bill was passed by Parliament in 1957.



Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)









Story

The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.



Vocabulary

catering  arlwyo  verb;  bakery  popty   noun (m); 




Gwyn trained in catering at the local further education college.
When he completed his course, he set up a small bakery in the town.
The bakey was successful, but after a couple of years he felt that he needed a new challenge.
One evening he watched a television program about cocoa growers in Africa.
The presenter showed how the beans were harvested, and how very high quality chocolate is made by hand.
Gwyn realised how exciting it would be to set up his own small company making chocolate.
When the bakery was quiet in the autumn, he left the staff in charge and travelled to west Africa.
He toured cocoa plantations and discussed fair trade prices with the farmers.
After returning to Wales, he received the first delivery of cocoa beans.
His kitchen became a laboratory to experiment with chocolate production.
He developed machinery for roasting, grinding and pressing the beans.
After many attempts, he found the best recipe, temperatures and processing times to produce excellent chocolate.
He advertised with a web site, and made sales by mail order to chocolate lovers.
Visitors also came to the shop to buy his very special chocolate.
Gwyn is determined to keep the business small and continue making chocolate by hand.
He does not want to expand to supply supermarkets and reduce the high quality of his chocolate.

Translate the sentence:

Gwyn trained in catering at the local further education college.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)










Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:








Use of Welsh

Ffordd Penrhyn


You are invited to translate a newspaper article into Welsh:







Vocabulary

social media   cyfryngau cymdeithasol  noun (pl);
claim, allege  honni verb;  honour anrhydedd noun (f);
slave  caethwas  noun (m);  unlikely  annhebygol  adjective;
feature  nodwedd  noun (f);







Translate the sentence:

An argument has developed over the street name `Ffordd Penrhyn` on a new housing estate in Barry, South Wales.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)








Description


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:








Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

What happened during the recent landslip at Pendyrus?


Why has the landslip caused people in south Wales to worry?


Why are old coal tips unstable?


What is the purpose of the report which has been commissioned?


What role could vegetation play in reducing landslips at old coal tips?


What other methods are available for preventing the landslips?


Who will pay for the work?




Diogelu tomenni glo

Mae ddyletswydd ar Lywodraeth Prydain i weithredu wedi tirlithriad uwchben Pendyrus yn Rhondda Cynon Taf. Llithrodd 60,000 o dunelli o wastraff glo i lawr ochr y mynydd ym Mhendyrus wedi glaw trwm mewn storm. Roedd y ffilm o`r glo yn llithro i lawr yn dod a llawer o atgofion trawmatig o drychineb Aberfan yn l i bobl Cymru.

Darparodd Llywodraeth y DU 2.5 miliwn i helpu i lanhau a diogelu`r safle. Ond mynnu wnaeth Llywodraeth Cymru y byddai angen ffigwr "sylweddol fwy". Yn l Llywodraeth Prydain mae`r cyfrifoldeb am amddiffynfeydd llifogydd a rheoli llifogydd wedi`i ddatganoli, ond fe fyddan nhw`n rhyddhau mwy o arian y flwyddyn nesaf ar gyfer y gwaith.

Cafodd adolygiad ei gomisiynu, dan arweiniad Llywodraeth Cymru a chydweithrediad yr Awdurdod Glo, er mwyn llunio rhestr o`r holl domenni glo a`u statws risg. Mae`r rhan fwyaf yng nghymoedd y de.

Dwedodd cynrychiolydd yr Arolwg Daearegol Prydain:

`Yn ne Cymru mae gennym ni bwysau ychwanegol o lawer o wastraff glo yn eistedd ar ben y llethrau hynny sy`n ddeunydd sydd heb ei gywasgu a sy`n gallu llithro`n hawdd. Efallai mai dim ond gwaethygu hynny y gwneith newid hinsawdd.

`Ond bod atebion posibl amrywiol. O opsiynau peirianneg caled, sy`n edrych ar ailbroffilio`r llethrau.

`Gallwch ddefnyddio chwistrell concrit hylifol sy`n gludo`r llethr yn l gyda`i gilydd. Neu gallech chi fynd am bethau fel plannu llystyfiant i angori`r pridd yn l i`r ddaear.




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