Session 14






Language notes

In Welsh, many common verbs are followed by particular prepositions.  In this section we give examples for some verbs beginning with letters G - Y.  This continues the list begun previously in session 13.

gadael i;
      Gadewch i Jane orffen y stori.
      Leave Jane to finish the story.
gafael yn/mewn 
       Gafaelwch yn y bwced o sied yr ardd.
       Grab the bucket from the garden shed.
       Gafaelwch mewn bwced o sied yr ardd.
       Grab a bucket from the garden shed.
gofalu am;
        Allwch chi ofalu am y plant y prynhawn yma?
        Can you take care of the children this afternoon?
gofyn i/am
         Gofynnais i'r tiwtor am help gyda'r traethawd.
         I asked the tutor for help with the essay.
gorchymyn i
         Gorchmynnodd i'r staff adael y swyddfa.
         He ordered the staff to leave the office.
gwahardd rhag
         Mae'r rhybudd yn gwahardd pobl rhag fynd i mewn yr hen adeilad. 
         The notice forbids people to go in the old building.
gweiddi ar/am 
         Gwaeddodd yr hyfforddwr ar y chwaraewr am golli'r gl.
         The trainer shouted at the player for missing the goal.
gwisgo am
         Roedd yn gwisgo siwt a thei am y cyfarfod.
         He was wearing a suit and tie for the meeting.
gwrando ar/am
         Roedd yn gwrando ar y glaw ac am geir yn mynd heibio.
         He was listening to the rain and for cars going past.
gwylio dros;
         Byddaf yn gwylio dros yr anifeiliaid tra byddet ti i ffwrdd.
         I will watch over the animals while you are away.
hiraethu am;
         Roedden nhw yn hiraethu am y dyddiau cyn y rhwngrwyd.
         They were longing for the days before the internet.
llwyddo i/yn
         Llwyddodd i ennill gwobr gyntaf yn y sioe amaethyddol.
         She succeeded in winning a first prize in the agricultural show.
mynd at/i 
        Af i at y rheolwr i ofyn am y prosiect.
        I will go to the manager to ask about the project.
nesu at;
        Mae'r tr^en yn nesu at orsaf Ganolog Caerdydd.
        The train is approaching Cardiff Central station.
ofni rhag 
        Roedd e'n ofni rhag taranau a mellt.   
        He was frightened of thunder and lightning.






peidio 
        Cefais rybudd i beidio mynd yno eto.
        I had a warning not to go there again.
pwyso ar;
       Pwysodd y cwmni ar y staff i weithio oriau hirach.
       The company pressed the staff to work longer hours.
rhedeg at
       Rhedodd y plant at eu hathrawes.
       The children ran to their teacher.
rhoi i/am;
       Rhowch y llysiau i'r cogydd am y cawl.
       Give the cook the vegetables for the soup.
siarad /am; 
        Byddaf yn siarad 'r gwesteion am eu trefniadau.
        I will speak to the guests about their arrangements.
sn wrth/am;
        Rhaid i mi sn wrth Mr Jones am y cyfarfod.
        I must mention to Mr Jones about the meeting.      
sylwi ar; 
        Wnaethon ni sylwi ar y tai newydd yn y pentref.
        We noticed the new houses in the village.
talu i/am;
        Rhaid i ni dalu pum punt i'r ffermwr am wersylla.
        We must pay five pounds to the farmer for camping.
troi at;
        Gwnaethon nhw droi at y cyngor am gymorth ariannol.
        They turned to the council for financial help. 
ufuddhau i;
         Rhaid i chi ufuddhau i holl arwyddion y ffyrdd.
         You must obey all the road signs.
ychwanegu at
         Bydd y llyfr hwn yn ychwanegu at y casgliad hanes lleol.
         This book will add to the local history collection.
ymadael ;
         Bydd y tr^en yn ymadael platfform tri am hanner awr wedi deg.
         The train will leave platform three at half past ten.
ymdrin 
         Mae'r gohebydd yn ymdrin 'r etholiad ar gyfer y papur newydd.
         The reporter is covering the election for the newspaper.
ymguddio rhag
          Mae'n ymguddio rhag y grwp o fechgyn. 
          He is hiding from the group of boys.
ymladd /dros
          Roedden nhw'n ymladd 'r Llywodraeth dros hawliau menywod. 
          They were fighting the Government over women's rights.
ymosod ar;
          Ymosododd y gatrawd ar y gelyn ar doriad y wawr.
          The regiment attacked the enemy at dawn.
ymwybod o.
          Roedd yn ymwybodol o'r sŵn y tu allan i'r tŷ.
          He was conscious of the noise outside the house.




Treigladau

In this section we look at some further occurrences of the treiglad meddal.

A treiglad meddal is applied after the numbers un (with feminine nouns only) and dwy/dau.  It is also possible, but not essential, to apply a treiglad meddal after the numbers saith and wyth.  Either of the following is acceptable: 

      Prynodd y bwyty saith fwrdd ac wyth gadair.       
      Prynodd y bwyty saith bwrdd ac wyth cadair.
      The restaurant bought seven tables and eight chairs.
 
A treiglad meddal is applied after dyma, dyna and dacw. These words are acting as if they are short form verbs:

       Dyma gae lle gallwn ni wersylla.                          cae
       Here is a field where we can camp.
             
        Dyna fws i ganol y dref.                                        bws
        That's a bus to the town center.  
       
        Dacw gi yn casglu defaid gyda'r ffermwr             ci
        There's a dog collecting sheep with the farmer.

A treiglad meddal appears in greetings:
         Llongyfarchiadau, gydweithwyr.                         cydweithwyr
         Congratulations, colleagues.
         Croeso, foneddigion a boneddigesau.               boneddigion
         Welcome, ladies and gentlemen.         





When two words are joined together, a treiglad meddal is applied to the second word, for example:
              pwer tŷ                pwerdy               power station
              mr   + clawdd        morglawdd        breakwater
              cylch  +  llythyr       cylchlythyr        news letter

A treiglad meddal is applied after the conjunction neu:
          Nid oes gen i gar neu feic.                                                  beic
          I don't have a car or bike.
          Dydyn nhw ddim eisiau byw mewn dinas neu dref.         tref
          They do not want to live in a city or town.

A treiglad meddal is also applied after the conjunction pan:
      Aeth hi at y drws pan ganodd y gloch.                                     canodd
      She went to the door when the bell rang.
      Roeddent yn cerdded ar hyd y traeth pan welsant y llong.     gwelsant 
      They were walking along the beach when they saw the ship.

A treiglad meddal is applied after faint and pwy in a question:

        Faint fydd yn y cyfarfod?                        bydd
        How many will be in the meeting?

        Pwy dalodd am y tocynnau?                  talodd
        Who paid for the tickets?



Idioms

The word 'rhwng' is usually translated as 'between':
        Bydd yn cyrraedd rhwng tri a phedwar o'r gloch.
        He will arrive between three and four o'clock.
        Mae Felinheli rhwng Bangor a Caernarfon.
        Felinheli is between Bangor and Caernarfon.

'rhwng' appears in a number of common sayings and idioms:

does dim Cymraeg rhyngddyn nhw - they are not on speaking terms.
   Ar l y ddadl rhwng Dafydd a Huw, does dim Cymraeg rhyngddyn nhw. 
   After the argument between Dafydd and Huw, they are not on speaking terms.

rhwng bodd ac anfodd - with mixed feelings, uncertain   
    Symudodd y teulu i'r ddinas rhwng bodd ac anfodd, yn drist 
    wrth adael y pentref.
    The family moved to the city with mixed feelings, sad at leaving the village.





rhyngoch chi a fi a'r wal - confidentially, between the two of us
   Rhyngoch chi a fi a'r wal, mae'r cwmni'n bwriadu cau'r swyddfa hon.
   Confidentially, the company is planning to close this office.

rhwng cwsg ac effro - half awake
    Rhwng cwsg ac effro, clywodd rywun yn symud yn yr ardd.
    Half awake, he heard someone moving in the garden. 

rhwng popeth - amongst everything
    Roedd y siop yn brysur a rhwng popeth anghofiais brynu bara.
    The shop was busy and amongst everything I forgot to buy bread.

rhwng y cŵn a'r brain - to deteriorate, to go to the dogs 
     Collodd y perchennog ddiddordeb ac aeth y gwesty rhwng       
     y cŵn a'r brain.
     The owner lost interest and the hotel went to the dogs.




St Fagans Museum


Saint Fagans Museum of Welsh Life is a large open-air museum.
It is situated in the grounds of an Elizabethan manor house built by a wealthy lawyer named Dr John Gibbon around 1580.
The house and grounds were owned by the Earl of Plymouth, who gave the estate to the nation in 1948.
Historic buildings of different ages and from all parts of Wales have been brought to St Fagans and reassembled.
There are now over fifty historic buildings in natural settings around the grounds of the manor house.
The most ancient buildings are reconstructions of Iron Age round houses.
These are based on archaeological sites in Anglesey.
The museum has several farmhouses dating from the Middle Ages.
These demonstrate how builders used timber and clay to make walls, with thatch for the roofs.
By the eighteenth century, buildings were being constructed from stone.
Farm houses and workmen`s cottages are shown with furniture of the appropriate period.
The museum has a variety of buildings where people worked.
A woolen mill contains nineteenth-century machinery, still used to make traditional Welsh blankets.
The mill is powered by a water wheel.
A tannery from Rhayader has been rebuilt at the museum.
This produced heavy leather for boots and horse harness.
Buildings in the museum show what life was like in Welsh communities.
School groups can experience a lesson in the village school during Victorian times.
A chapel dating back to the eighteenth century is still used for services.
The Oakdale workmen`s institute was a community and education centre for miners.
As well as the collection of historic buildings, Saint Fagans has a museum with galleries showing various different aspects of Welsh life.

Translate the sentence:

Saint Fagans Museum of Welsh Life is a large open-air museum.



Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)









Story

The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.



Vocabulary

Brecon Beacons  Bannau Brycheiniog;  
expedition  alltaith  noun (f);  legend  chwedl  noun (f);
descent  disgyniad  noun (m);   tight  tynn  adjective;
crawl  cropian  verb;  boulder  clogfaen   noun (m);
passage  tramwyfa  noun (f);  




Huw and Ella are presenters of a Welsh radio magazine programme.
The programme has recently been examining the tourist industry.
The producer has the idea that the presenters could get personal experience of outdoor adventure holidays for families, and talk about their experiences on the radio.
For the first report, Huw was sent to join a group of adventurers for an expedition in the Brecon Breacons.
The leader took them high onto the moorland of the Black Mountains, before descending the rocky slopes to Llyn y Fan.
The leader told them of the ancient legends associated with the lake.
They camped overnight in the wild open country, then completed the expedition to the summit of Pen y Fan.
Next to take part was Ella, who was sent for a day`s mountain biking in a forest in south Wales.
After some training on tracks around the outdoor centre, the group were taken by minibus with their bikes to the top of the valley.
From here, they had a fast and exciting descent along miles of tracks through the forest.
In places the narrow track was steep and rocky, with tight turns to avoid trees.
After presenting accounts of their adventures on the radio program, the producer told Huw about his final challenge.
He was joining a group to explore a huge cave system on the mountain above the town of Crickhowell.
The cave has the name `Ogof Agen Allwedd`, meaning `Keyhole Cave` in English.
This is due to the shape of some of the small tunnels.
The group went to the entrance of the cave, where the leader unlocked a tiny gate in the rock face.
After crawling through very small tunnels, they reached a chamber where they had to climb between large limestone boulders.
Eventually they reached a large passage with an underground river flowing along it.
They were amazed to see bats living in the cave.
After about four hours, they came back out into the daylight.
Huw gave an account of his adventure during the programme the following week.
At a meeting later, the producer congratulated the two presenters on thier reports.
`Where shall I send you next?` he said.
`Perhaps we could explore shops and restaurants in Cardiff as our next project, please`.

Translate the sentence:

Huw and Ella are presenters of a Welsh radio magazine programme.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)










Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:








Use of Welsh

Meirionnydd oak woods










Vocabulary

layer  haen  noun (f);   emergent  ymwthiol  adjective; 
species  rhywogaeth  noun (f);  short lived  byrhoedlog  adjective;
birch  bedwen  noun (f);  oak  derwen  noun (f);
occupy  anheddu  verb;  shrub  llwyn  noun (m);
holly  celynnen  noun (f);  herb  llysieuyn  noun (m);
fern  rhedynen  noun (f);   moss  mwsogl  noun (m);
damp  llaith  adjective;  lichen  cen  noun (m);
epiphyte  epiffyt  noun (m);  trunk  boncyff  noun (m);
native  brodorol  adjective;  extensive  ymestynnol  adjective;



The largest ancient woodlands in Wales are the Meirionnydd Oakwoods in Snowdonia.

The woodland has a layering similar to tropical rainforest, and has been designated as temperate rainforest.  Other areas of temperate rainforest occur in countries as diverse as Ireland and New Zealand.

An information sheet is being produced for students to explain the woodland structure.  You are invited to translate this into Welsh.




Translate the sentence:

The emergent layer is formed by the tallest trees, which grow as high as possible to reach the light.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)








Description


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:








Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

When and why did the group of Welsh settlers emigrate to South America?


How did the Welsh settlers reach Patagonia?


In what areas of Patagonia did the Welsh settle?


Did the Welsh settlers have a good relationship with the local indigenous people?


Why did the Welsh settlers contact the Argentinian Government?


Is Welsh culture still important in Patagonia?


Do groups from Patagonia make cultural visits to Wales?




Yr Wladfa

Ardal yn nhalaith Chubut, Patagonia, yr Ariannin lle ymfudodd llawer o Gymry yng nghanol y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg yw`r Wladfa. Mae cymunedau Cymreig mewn gwledydd eraill hefyd, megis Pennsylvania yn yr Unol Dalaithiau, ond mae`r diwylliant a`r iaith Gymraeg yn amlycaf yn y Wladfa.

Craidd yr Wladfa yw Dyffryn Camwy, tua 60 km i`r de o Borth Madryn. Y prif drefi yw Rawson, prifddinas y dalaith, Gaiman sef y dref fwyaf Cymreig yn yr ardal, a Threlew. Tua 500 milltir i`r gorllewin o Ddyffryn Camwy, yng Nghwm Hyfryd wrth draed yr Andes yw Esquel a Threvelin, dwy dref arall a sefydlwyd gan y Cymry.

Heddiw, mae tua 150,000 o bobl yn byw yn yr ardal a thua hanner ohonynt yn ddisgynyddion i`r Cymry. Mae tua 5,000 yn siarad Cymraeg a channoedd yn dysgu`r iaith.

Yn y flwyddyn 1865 hwyliodd dros gant a hanner o Gymry, yn wyr, gwragedd a phlant, o Lerpwl i wlad newydd ddiffaith yn Ne America. Rhan o batrwm ymfudo mawr y ganrif ddiwethaf oedd hwn ac aethant yno i osgoi tlodi. Pobl penderfynol oedd y Cymry hyn a hwyliodd ar y llong Mimosa, ac er iddynt gyrraedd gwlad ddiannedd, trwy chwys a llafur llwyddasant i greu yno gymdeithas newydd.

Daeth y Gymru mewn cysylltiad r brodorion lleol a ddatblygodd perthynas da. Dysgasant ir Cymry sut i hela yn null y brodorion, a bu hyn yn gymorth mawr iddynt gael digon i`w fwyta yn y blynyddoedd cynnar.

Troesant y tir diffaith yn ardal ffermio a`i throsglwyddo i`w disgynyddion sydd hyd heddiw yn byw yn y rhan honno o`r Ariannin a elwir Patagonia. Yn fuan wedi ymsefydlu yno talodd yr ymfudwyr hyn wrogaeth i faner Ariannin ac addo bod yn deyrngar i`w gwlad newydd.

Heddiw, ar l dros ganrif a chwarter, cawn bobl nad oes ganddynt unrhyw gysylltiad Chymru yn cyd-ddathlu Gwyl y Glaniad ar Orffennaf 28 bob blwyddyn. Maent yn uno hefyd yn un o uchafbwyntiau`r flwyddyn, sef yr Eisteddfod fawr a gynhelir yn Nhrelew, Eisteddfod sydd wedi ei phatrymu ar Eisteddfodau Cymru, a cheir pobl o bob cenedl yn cystadlu ar ganu, adrodd a dawnsio a llu o gystadlaethau eraill.

Mae cerddoriaeth yn rhan bwysig o`u traddodiad. Ym 1987 cafodd Cr y Camwy y drydedd wobr yn Eisteddfod Gydwladol Llangollen, ac yn Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Urdd Gobaith Cymru Taf-Elai ym 1991 enillodd Cr Plant y Gaiman y wobr gyntaf.




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