Session 20






Language notes

In this section we look further at some prepositions.  These small words can cause difficulty in Welsh, as the patterns of use may differ from English.

The preposition 'o' generally has the meaning 'of', and can follow a noun to provide a further description:
        Mae ganddo fe brofiad o weithio mewn gwesty.
        He has experience of working in a hotel.

 In some cases, however, 'o' is not included: 
        Roedden nhw'n trafod effaith y llifogydd
        They were discussing the effect of the floods.            

The preposition 'o' is included in most phrases involving numbers, divisions and quantities, for example:
         Gwnaethon ni archebu dwy wydraid o win.
         We ordered two glasses of wine.
         Derbyniodd hi sgr o saith deg y cant yn yr arholiad.
         She received a score of seventy percent in the examination.
         Rydyn ni'n tyfu llysiau mewn rhan o'r ardd.
         We grow vegetables in part of the garden.
         Mae wedi'i ysgrifennu ar y darn hwn o bapur.
         It is written on this piece of paper.

'o' is incuded in the phrases:
use of:
         Roedd e eisiau defnydd o gar ddydd Sadwrn.
         He wanted the use of a car on Saturday.
idea of:
          Rwy'n hoffi'r syniad o drefnu parti.
          I like the idea of organising a party.
choice of:
          Roedd y gwesty yn cynnig dewis o ystafelloedd.
          The hotel offered a choice of rooms.
way of:
         Gwnaethon ni ddarganfod ffordd well o adeiladu'r wal.
         We discovered a better way of building the wall.

However, 'o' is not included in the phrases:
meaning of:
         Esboniodd yr athro ystyr y gerdd.
         The teacher explained the meaning of the poem.
details of:
         Mae'r llyfr yn rhoi manylion y daith.
         The book gives details of the journey.  
lack of:
         Roedd gwaith y myfyriwr yn dangos diffyg dealltwriaeth.
         The student's work showed a lack of understanding.
purpose of:
         Esboniodd y rheolwr bwrpas y prosiect.
         The manager explained the purpose of the project.
price of:
          Cawson i ein synnu gan bris y tŷ.
          We were surprised by the price of the house.




The English word 'for' is generally translated into Welsh as 'am', although the preposition 'i' may sometimes be used.

Examples of cases using 'am'
for a person:
      Mae eich chwaer yn aros amdanoch chi.
      Your sister is waiting for you.
for transport:
       Rhaid i mi fynd am y trn nawr.
       I must go for the train now.
for a period of time:
      Gwnaethon ni aros yn y bwthyn am wythnos.
       We stayed in the cottage for a week.
going for a meal:
       Aethon nhw i'r ddinas am bryd o fwyd mewn bwyty.
       They went into the city for a meal in a restaurant.
for a price:
       Prynon nhw'r car am fil o bunnau.
       They bought the car for a thousand pounds. 
opportunity for:
       Mae ei swydd yn rhoi cyfle am deithiau i America.
       His job provides the opportunity for trips to America.
reason for:
       Roedd rheswm da am werthu'r tŷ.
       There was a good reason for selling the house.  
        Doedd dim rheswm am fynd i Gaerdydd.
        There was no reason for going to Cardiff.

The preposition 'i' is used in some cases to represent the English word 'for':

for a meal, especially where this might also use the English word 'to':
       Byddwn yn mynd allan i ginio ar l y cyfarfod.
       We will go out for lunch after the meeting.                    (...to lunch...)
       Beth hoffech chi i frecwast?
       What would you like for breakfast?

an object or event provided for someone:
       Mae'n gwrs i oedolion.
       It is a course for adults.
       Gwnaethon ni archebu bwrdd i bedwar o bobl.
       We ordered a table for four people.

for this, or for that:
      Nid oes gennyf amser i hyn.
      I have no time for this.
      Rwyn siŵr yr hoffech i hynny ddigwydd.
      I am sure you would like that to happen.

to work for an organisation:
      Dewisodd weithio i gwmni bach.
      He chose to work for a small company.
      Dechreuodd ei yrfa trwy weithio i archfarchnad.
      He began his career by working for a supermarket.     




Treigladau

In this section we will look at compound prepositions made up from pairs of words.  Examples are:  ar gyfero flaen, yn erbyn and wrth ochr.  We will examine the ways in which compound prepositions  produce treigladau.  

The initial word is a preposition, and causes a soft mutation of the second word, e.g.
                    ar + cyfer   becomes  ar gyfer

This may be followed by a noun in the normal way, e.g.:
                    ar gyfer yr ysgol                     for the school

However, a personal pronoun should be inserted between the pair of words.  
The pronoun can cause a mutation of the second word. 
For example:
       for me                      ar fy nghyfer             fy causes treiglad trwynol 
       for you                     ar dy gyfer                 dy causes treiglad meddal 
       for him                     ar ei gyfer                  ei (masculine):  treiglad meddal
       for her                     ar ei chyfer                 ei (feminine):    treiglad llaes
       for us                      ar ein cyfer
       for you                    ar eich cyfer
       for them                  ar eu cyfer
                    
Other examples are:

o flaen - in front of
      Mae'r grŵp o dy flaen di ar y llwybr.
      The group is in front of you on the path.

ar ben - on top of
      Pan ddeffrais, roedd y gath ar fy mhen.
      When I woke up, the cat was on top of me.





o dan - under
      Roedd yr i ar y pwll yn torri oddi tan o.
      The ice on the pond was breaking under him.

wrth ochr - beside    
      Roedd ei fam wrth ei ochr.
      His mother was by his side.

uwch ben - above
      Roedd y ffenestr uwch ei phen.   
      The window was above her.
      Roedd y ffenestr uwch ei ben.
      The window was above him.

Other commonly used compound prepositions do not generally cause treigladau:

ar hyd - along
     Cerddon ni ar hyd pont.
     We walked along a bridge.

ar draws - across
     Hwyliodd ar draws mr lydan.
     He sailed across a wide sea.

yn erbyn - against
    Ymladdon nhw yn erbyn gelyn ffyrnig.
    They fought against a fierce enemy.



Idioms

Prepositional phrases often differ in structure between English and Welsh.  

In a number of cases, a preposition in the English sentence is not needed in the Welsh translation.  Examples are:

      Will you read out the first paragraph, please.
      A wnewch chi ddarllen y paragraff cyntaf, os gwelwch yn dda.

      Turn off the computer, please.
      Diffoddwch y cyfrifiadur, os gwelwch yn dda.

      I got a lot out of the course.
      Cefais lawer o'r cwrs.

       I haven't printed out the work yet.
       Nid ydw i wedi argraffu'r gwaith eto. 

       Look it up in a dictionary.  
       Edrychwch amdano mewn geiriadur. 

       We will carry on with the work after lunch.
       Byddwn yn parhau gyda'r gwaith ar l cinio.      




        I need to sort out the problem.
        Mae angen i mi ddatrys y broblem.

        Give the sheets out to the class, please.
        Rhowch y taflenni i'r dosbarth, os gwelwch yn dda.

In other cases, a more natural Welsh pattern is prefereable to a direct translation of an idiomatic phrase in English.  For example:

     She has made up her mind about which course she wants to study.     
     Mae hi wedi penderfynu pa gwrs y mae hi eisiau ei astudio.

      They didn't turn up for the meeting last night.
      Wnaethon nhw ddim dod i'r cyfarfod neithiwr.

      Two main points stand out in the report.
      Mae dau brif bwynt yn amlwg yn yr adroddiad.

      The college will have broken up by then.
      Bydd y coleg wedi cau am y gwyliau erbyn hynny.

     They have given up because the course is too difficult.
     Maen nhw wedi rhoir gorau iddi oherwydd bod y cwrs yn rhy anodd.




Abermule Train Disaster


The worst railway disaster in Britain on a single track railway occurred near Abermule in Mid-Wales in January 1921.
Two trains collided head-on and 17 people were killed, including the driver and fireman of one of the engines.
The inquiry following the accident found that it occurred due to confusion and misunderstandings by the staff at Abermule station.
The single track railway across Wales was divided into a series of sections between stations, with only one train allowed in each section.
Trains travelling in different directions could pass each other at the stations.
The system was controlled by having one metal token for each section, marked with the name of the section.
An engine driver must check that he has the correct token before entering the section of track.
To allow for several trains travelling in the same direction, one after another, a machine system was introduced in signal boxes.
When a train arrived with a token, the signalman put this into a machine.
Just one token could then be released at either end of the section of track, allowing only one train to travel along the section.
On the day of the disaster, two trains were approaching Abermule station from different directions.
An express train was travelling from Aberystwyth in the west, and a stopping train from Whitchurch in the east.
The train from Whitchurch arrived at Abermule station, where it was supposed to wait for the Aberystwyth train to arrive and pass.
The signalman should have been in charge of issuing the correct single line tokens to the drivers of the trains, but he had left the signal box to open the level crossing gates.
A booking clerk took the token from the driver of the train from Whitchurch.
He met the assistant station master on the platform, and gave the line token to him.
The assistant station master was confused, and thought that this was the new token to allow the train to leave.
He assumed that the train from Aberystwyth was delayed, so gave the token back to the driver and told him that he could depart.
The driver failed to check that it was the correct token for the section of line that he was about to enter.
The station staff only realised their mistake after the train from Whitchurch had left.
The two trains were travelling at speed when they approached each other around a curve.
There was no time to brake, and a head-on collision occurred.
As a result of this accident, railway signalling procedures were made much stricter to avoid any possibility of this happening again.

Translate the sentence:

The worst railway disaster in Britain on a single track railway occurred near Abermule in Mid-Wales in January 1921.



Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)









Story

The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.



Vocabulary

tusk  ysgithr  noun (m);




A huge storm occurred along the coast of Pembrokeshire, with high waves battering the cliffs for many hours.
When fishermen went back to sea the next day, they saw that a cave had appeared half way up the cliff on a steep headland.
The cave entrance must have been hidden by a fallen boulder, which was washed away during the storm.
When local climbers heard about the cave, they were excited to investigate it.
They descended the cliff on ropes to reach the cave entrance.
They have taken powerful torches, and cameras to record the features of the cave.
They were astonished to see bones, and some footprints in the clay on the cave floor.
There was an area of ash surrounded by stones where there may have been a fire.
The climbers realised that the remains in the cave were very old.
They were careful not to walk any further into the cave, and just took photographs of their discoveries.
After returning home, they contacted the National Museum and sent copies of the photographs.
There was huge excitement, and archaeologists were sent to the area immediately.
They found that the cave had been occupied by Stone Age people, towards the end of the Ice Age in Wales.
At the time, the sea level was lower and there would have been flat coastal land below the cliff and cave.
The bones were from animals which the people had hunted, then cooked over a fire in the cave.
The archaeologists identified bones from a mammoth, similar to an elephant but with huge tusks.
The finds were removed from the cave and put on display in the museum, along with pictures and information to explain how Stone Age people lived in Wales.

Translate the sentence:

A huge storm occurred along the coast of Pembrokeshire, with high waves battering the cliffs for many hours.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)










Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:








Use of Welsh

Barmouth information


A sign is being erected on the promenade in Barmouth to give visitors important information: 



The English text is shown alongside.  You are invited to produce a Welsh translation.



Vocabulary

inflatable  enchwythedig  adjective;  Coastguard  Gwylwyr y Glannau;
emergency  argyfwng  noun (m);



Beach Safety

Beware of strong currents.

Beware of being cut off by the tide on sand banks.

Take care with inflatable floats in strong winds.

Do not dig or burrow in sand dunes.

No vehicles on the beach.

No dogs on the beach from April 1st to September 30th.

Public Information 

Toilets - Public toilets are located at the harbour and on Station Road in front of the railway station.

Harbour Master's Office - is located at the southern end of the promenade by the quayside.

First Aid - If treatment is needed for minor injuries, you can get help from our Beach Supervisors or at the Harbour Master's Office.  

In an emergency, dial 999 and ask for the Coastguard.

Sun safety - Keep safe by covering your skin with sun screen and by wearing sun glasses. Cover your head and shoulders by wearing a sun hat and suitable T-shirt.

Litter - Please do not leave litter on the beach.  Use the refuse bins or recycling bins along the promenade. Alternatively please take your litter home. 

Translate the sentence:

Beach Safety.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)








Description


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:








Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

Where did Aled Samuel attend the carol service?


Why was he disappointed by the service?


Apart from English, what language appeared in the programme for the service, and why?


Why did Aled Samuel particularly mention the choir who were singing the carols?


Do the little things are considered to be St David`s most famous words. Why did Aled Samuel think that this saying was not adequate on this occasion?




Carol service at St David`s Cathedral

The following article was written by the well known Welsh broadcaster Aled Samuel:

Ar drothwy`r Nadolig mi oedden ni fel teulu yng Nghadeirlan Tŷ Ddewi. Fe fuom ni yng ngwasanaeth carolau elusen Y Samariaid. Rhyw fath o naw llith a charol, fath o dwda.
Eglwys Gadeiriol Tŷ Ddewi yw pencadlys esgobaeth fwyaf Cymraeig Cymru fe ellid dadlau. Ac eto fe allen ni fod wedi bod mewn gwasanaeth yn mherfeddion Lleogr.
Yr Eglwys yn llawn hyd y wal gefn. Dim gair o Gymraeg yn y cyflwyniad, neb o blith gweithwyr y Samariaid nag o`r eglwys yn annerch yn Gymraeg. Dim un garol Gymraeg. Dwy awr a mwy o wasanaeth a dau ddarlleniad Cymraeg byr, ar gynffon darlleniadau Saesneg, mor gloi fel prin oeddech chi`n gallu cofrestru mai Cymraeg oedden nhw.
Gan mai tŷ bwyta`r Taj Mahal yn Hwlffordd, os gofia`n i`n iawn, oedd un o`r noddwyr, mae`n gywir i ddweud fod mwy o Indian yn y rhaglen (gan fod ei hysbyseb yn cynnwys yr enw) nag oedd yna o Gymraeg.
Mi oedd e fel `tae`r genedl gyfan wedi`i thraflyncu gan Lloegr. Fel hunllef `dystopaidd` yn ninas Dewi. Peidiwch dychmygu am un funud mod i`n gweld drwg ym mhopeth Saesneg, achos dydw i ddim, ond mi oedd yn disgwyl, o safbwynt ieithyddol, yn un o wasanaeth cydradd o leia`, yn enwedig gan mai Cr Dyfed oedd yn canu`r carolau.
Mae enw`r Cr, mewn ffordd, yn swnio fel `taen nhw`n cynrhychioli Dyfed, fel ag yr oedd hi. Wel `dw i`n byw o fewn ffiniau`r sir honno, a doedden nhw`n sicr ddim yn fy nghynrychioli i`r noson honno, na theimladau llawer o bobl eraill sy`n byw ynddi.
Dw i ddim eisiau ymddangos yn gwynfanllyd ond roedd e`n teimlo fel penderfyniad polisi pwrpasol, fel imperialaeth ddiwylliannol. Mater hawdd fyddai cynnwys y Gymraeg? Nefi bliw! Gwrandewch arna i, yn trio cyfiawnhau cynnwys Cymraeg, yn fy ngwlad fy hun! Achos y sioc fwyaf am wn i yw bod rhywrai yn meddwl fod hyn yn dderbyniol. A fu trafodaeth? A gododd rhywun lais dros ganu ambell i garol Gymraeg?
Y Cymru a gynhaliodd Cristnogaeth ym Mhrydain, ond i gael ein concro drwy`r drws bac, mileniwm a mwy yn ddiweddarach, yng nghartref ein nawdd sant.
Mae`n rhy hwyr i wneud y pethau bychain, Dew. Mae angen gweithredoedd mawr, a hynny`n gloi!




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