Session 8






Language notes

The conditional tense in Welsh is used in situations where it is uncertain whether an action will take place.  It is equivalent to  ..would....could.., ..might.. in English.

The conditional tense in Welsh usually has a long (cwmpasog) form in which the conditional tense of 'bod' is combined with a verb noun.  Two alternative versions of the conditional tense are in use, and for most purposes are interchangeable:

Using bydd-
                    
Ist person singular    byddwn i'n mynd             I would go                     
2nd person                byddet ti'n mynd              you would go     
3rd person                 byddai fe/fo/hi'n mynd    he/she would go
Ist person plural         bydden ni'n mynd           we would go           
2nd person                byddech chi'n mynd        you would go 
3rd person                 bydden nhw'n mynd       they would go

Using bas-
                     
Ist person singular    baswn i'n mynd              I would go                     
2nd person                baset ti'n mynd               you would go     
3rd person                 basai fe/fo/hi'n mynd    he/she would go
Ist person plural         basen ni'n mynd            we would go           
2nd person                basech chi'n mynd        you would go 
3rd person                 basen nhw'n mynd        they would go 

One difference between the two 'bod' forms is that bydd- is used to describe events which would occur regularly.  For example:
        Bydden yn mynd i Abersoch am ein gwyliau haf bob blwyddyn.
        We would go to Abersoch for our summer holidays every year.





Another conditional long form verb uses tas- , and is equivalent to the English word 'were..'.  It is generally used in combination with the word pe, 'if', to specify a requirement for something to happen:
 
Ist person singular   pe taswn i'n mynd               if I were to go                    
2nd person                pe taset ti'n mynd                if you were to go     
3rd person                 pe tasai fe/fo/hi'n mynd      if he/she were to go
Ist person plural         pe tasen ni'n mynd             if we were to go          
2nd person                pe tasech chi'n mynd          if you were to go
3rd person                 pe tasen nhw'n mynd          if they were to go  

The word 'pe' is sometimes omitted, but is imagined as being present.

Byddwn/baswn and pe taswn are used together in sentences with the meanings:
          if I were to .... , I would .... 
or 
          I would ... if I were to ...

For example:   
     Taswn i'n Brif Weinidog, baswn yn gwario mwy ar adeiladu tai.
     If I were Prime Minister, I would spend more on building houses.

     Byddwn yn teimlo'n euog pe taswn i'n mynd adref yn gynnar.
     I would feel guilty if I went home early.

The conditional tense is used when it is unlikely that an action will occur.  
The conditional tense is generally not used when an event is likely to occur.  In this case, the normal active verb tense is used:
     Os daw Peter i'r dosbarth, rhoddaf y llyfr iddo.
     If Peter comes to the class, I will give him the book.



Treigladau

We will continue our investigation of how sentence patterns affect the use of treigladau.  Sentences can be classified as:
      affirmative, where something occurs
                He is buying a car
      negative, where something does not occur
                He is not buying a car
       interrogative, where a question is asked
                Is he buying a car?

Affirmative sentences using tenses of the verb bod do not need a treiglad at the start.  For example:
       Bydd y plant yn yr ysgol yfory       
       The children will be in school tomorrow
        Mae John yn gwylio'r teledu
        John is watching television

Short form (cryno) verbs also do not need treigladau:
        Rhedodd y dyn i ddal y bws
        The man ran to catch the bus
        Byddaf yn dringo'r mynydd ar y penwythnos
        I will climb the mountain at the weekend

If the small word (known as a particle) fe or mi is introduced before the verb, however, then a treiglad meddal is applied to the verb:
         Fe redodd y dyn i ddal y bws
         Mi fyddaf yn dringo'r mynydd ar y penwythnos

Negative sentences may begin with a form of nid or nad (not).  This causes a soft mutation of the verb, or example:
          Ni ddaeth y myfyriwr i'r dosbarth
          The student did not come to the class
           Ni wnaethon ni brynu'r tŷ
           We did not buy the house





An alternative sentence pattern uses dim (not or none).  A soft mutation of the verb is again present:
          Ddaeth y myfyriwr ddim i'r dosbarth
          Wnaethon ni ddim brynu'r tŷ

The word dim can appear with two meanings:
           not         -  as in  'We are not going to the concert'    
           not any  -  as in  'There is not any milk in the kitchen 

When dim represents 'not', then a soft mutation is applied:
           Dydyn nhw ddim wedi cyrraedd eto
           They have not arrived yet
           Dydy'r bwyty ddim yn ddrud 
           The restaurant is not expensive

However, no treiglad is applied to dim if it has the meaning 'not any', for example:
           Does dim llyfrau ar y silff
           There are no books on the shelf
           Doedd dim gwaith i'r glowyr
           There was no work for the miners

Interrogative sentences may begin with the word 'a', which causes a soft mutation:
           A fydd y teulu'n aros yn y gwesty?
           Will the family stay in the hotel? 
           A welsoch chi'r machlud hyfryd?
           Did you see the beautiful sunset?

The initial 'a' can be omitted, but a soft mutation is still applied:
            Fydd y teulu'n aros yn y gwesty?
            Welsoch chi'r machlud hyfryd?



Idioms

The word 'o'  can have a number of meanings in sentences.  Examples are:

from:
    Mae'r rheilffordd yn rhedeg o Aberystwyth i'r Amwythig.
    The railway runs from Aberystwyth to Shrewsbury.

of:
     Mae'r tŷ wedi'i adeiladu o gerrig.
     The house is built of stone.

with:
      Roedd yr enillydd yn gwenu o rhyddhad.
      The winner smiled with relief.

'o' is used in counting:
      Roedd chwech o ddefaid yn y cae.
      There were six sheep in the field.

'o' can form a link between a pair of nouns:
      Aethon ni i'r bwyty am bryd o fwyd.
      We went to the restaurant for a meal.




'o' appears in a number of idioms, for example:

o bwys - of importance, matters
     Mae hanes y castell o bwys i ymwelwyr.
     The history of the castle matters to visitors.

o bedwar ban y byd - from around the world
     Daw myfyrwyr i'r brifysgol o bedwar ban y byd.
     Students come to university from around the world.

o bell - from a distance
     Gallem glywed clychauír eglwys o bell.
     We could hear the church bells from far away.

o bryd i'w gilydd - from time to time
      Darllenais nofel o bryd i'w gilydd.
      I read a novel from time to time.

o ddifrif -  serious
      Ydych chi o ddifrif ynglŷn ‚ phrynu cwch?
      Are you serious about buying a boat?




Translate the sentence:

Caerleon is the location of Isca Roman fortress.



Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)









Story

The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.



Vocabulary

approve  cymeradwyo  verb;   petition  deiseb noun (f);
runway  rhedfa  noun (f);




Air traffic was increasing.
The government wanted to increase the number of planes using the airport.
This would develop the region as a centre for international business.
They quickly approved plans to build new runway without asking the local people.
This would require cutting down ancient oak woods.
Local people were concerned about more aircraft noise.
They would not be able to have their windows open in the summer.
The local residents came out of their houses to met neighbours and arrange to protest.
A large petition was started, and thousands of signatures were received.
A protest march was arranged.
The march ended at the oak wood, where the campaigners gave speeches.
Television cameras filmed the event.
The campaign received support from the local Member of Parliament.
She was also concerned about the effects of more air travel on climate change.
When other Members of Parliament heard about the plans, they were also worried.
After a vote, the project was stopped until a full environmental report is produced.

Translate the sentence:

Air traffic was increasing.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)










Create your own story in Welsh

Click the button to randomly select a set of story icons:








Use of Welsh

Woodland Theme Park


Woodland Park is a theme park in south Wales.  

You are invited to translate the visitors' guide into Welsh:







Vocabulary

roundabout  trogylch  noun (m);   twist  troelli  verb;
woodland  coetir  noun (m);   zoo  sw  noun (m);
enclosure  lloc  noun (m);   among  ymhlith  preposition;
excitement  cynnwrf  noun (m);








Translate the sentence:

Enjoy your day at Woodland Park.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)








Description


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:








Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

What is Wikipedia?


What uses of Wikipedia are mentioned in the first paragraph?


When did Welsh Wikipedia begin, and how many articles does it now contain?


Who writes the articles for Wikipedia?


If an article is being written about a rugby player, where is it suggested that information can be obtained?


Who can correct errors and omissions in an article?


How is the National Library of Wales helping with the development of Wikipedia?




Dathlu`r cyfraniad Cymraeg ar ben-blwydd Wicipedia

Wicipedia yn dathlu pymtheg mlynedd ers creu`r erthygl gyntaf. Wicipedia yw`r gwyddoniadur mwyaf ar y blaned bellach ac mae`n un o`r gwefannau mwyaf poblogaidd yn y byd. Gyda degau o filiynau o erthyglau mewn bron i dri chant o ieithoedd, mae miliynau o bobl yn troi at Wicipedia am bob math o wybodaeth, o fywgraffiadau o`u hoff sÍr ffilm, i grefydd, gwleidyddiaeth a hanes hynafol.

Yn 2007 roedd gan y Wicipedia Cymraeg fil o erthyglau yn unig ond mae wedi tyfu`n gyflym ac erbyn hyn mae`n cynnwys yn agos at saith mil o erthyglau gwreiddiol yn y Gymraeg.

Yr hyn sy`n gwneud y ffigurau yma yn fwy trawiadol yw`r ffaith bod erthyglau Wicipedia yn cael eu creu yn gyfan gwbl gan wirfoddolwyr. Heb y bobl hyn ni fyddai Wicipedia yn bodoli.

Nid yw cyfrannu at Wicipedia erioed wedi bod mor hawdd. Gall unrhyw un gyfrannu.
Er enghraifft, os ydych yn ysgrifennu neu`n ychwanegu at erthygl am chwaraewr rygbi proffesiynol gallech gael gwybodaeth o wefan swyddogol, papur newydd neu hunangofiant.

Os ydych yn pori trwy erthygl ac yn gweld camgymeriad, waeth pa mor fach, cofiwch fod gennych y pŵer i glicio `golygu`, a chywiro`r camgymeriad yn syth yn y fan a`r lle.

Gan fod Wicipedia mor enfawr, mae hefyd yn llwyfan perffaith i rannu hanes Cymru gyda`r byd. Mae Lyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru wedi darparu delweddau i Wikipedia, o`r ffotograffau cynharaf yng Nghymru i baentiadau tirlun a llawysgrifau canoloesol.




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